The Clarence Railway was built to provide a more direct route for coal traffic from the Shildon area to the River Tees, in competition with the S&D Railway which made a big sweep to the south to serve Darlington and Yarm. The line was opened in 1833 but the station illustrated was built in 1866. It was renamed Billingham Junction in 1878, reverted to Billingham in 1893, and changed to Billingham-on-Tees in 1926. The photograph was taken around the turn of the century, before the signal box was replaced by a larger and much taller structure.
Photograph and details courtesy of Ivan Harrington.